Characteristics of sunflower


What is a sunflower

There is a common name : Sunflower. Its common name refers to its ability to orient itself to the sun and follow it in a diurnal course.

The scientific name is Helianthus annuus L. The scientific name comes from Greek and it means the flower of the sun.

Compositae is a family.

Habitat. It was native to North America and later brought to Mexico and Peru.

The history of the sunflower plant is extraordinary, for he traveled thousands of kilometers from its discovery to its exportation, to be marketed in Russia, and its return to its original habitat years later. In many regions of the world, it is cultivated as a food and ornamental plant.

Sunflowers grow on dry, sunny places because their roots can explore deeper soil layers.

Sunflower description

It is an annual plant that can reach over 3 meters high. The stem is massive and the plant has few branches.

There is a main tap root and abundant secondary roots.

Sunflower flower

Its leaves are between 5 and 30 cm long and half as wide and have three main veins. The upper and lower leaves are different.

The inflorescence is 10 to 30 cm in diameter and consists of hundreds of tiny tubular flowers.

There are rows of flowers that look like petals in the outer section. These flowers are golden yellow and have no reproductive function, but they serve as an attraction for insects, which help the plant in the process of pollination.

One of the most popular fruits in the world is the “ sunflower seeds ”, a fruit that develops into a receptacle similar to honeycomb. They are either flattened or shiny black, white or striated, depending on the variety.

When the plant is ripe, its floral head contains between 250 and 1500 achenes, depending on its size and the number of floral head that the plant has. The seed quantity is larger in plants with only one inflorescence.

The back of the flower head is green like the stem.

heliotropic movement is produced by the twisting of the stem in a process called nutation. The stem returns to its upright position at dusk.

The back of the flower head is yellow when the plant does not produce more seeds from 35-40 days after flowering.

Sunflower components

  • Consuming sugars : fructose, glucose. Its total content is 17 6 g per 100g.
  • The fat is concentrated in the fruit. There are varieties that are 50 % oil. The lecithin content must be pointed out. There is sunflower oil in the listing.
  • Its contribution in the form of histidine, cysteine, leucine, and tryptophan is important.
  • Pectin is a fiber.
  • His contribution is highlighted by Potassium, which is high in stem and leaves.
  • Thiamin, Riboflavin, andVitamin E are some of the vitamins.
  • The acids are caffeic acid and fumaric acid.
  • The leaves of the Flavonoids are called Quercetin.
  • Menthol is oil. The plant has more menthol than peppermint.

Main components of sunflower seeds

Sunflower as food

The seeds and oil from the seeds are used for human consumption.

The consumption of sunflower seeds has been studied and marketed around the world. The leaves and petals of the sunflower stem are also delicious.

sunflowers are grown for their fruit consumption, and if you want to use other parts of the plant, make sure they have not been subjected to fumigation or chemical treatments, so their intake can be toxic for human consumption.

In Native Americans, roasted sunflower seeds were used to make soups and breads. The stem was cooked and boiled with butter, vinegar and pepper, as was written by John Gerard.

The leaves can be prepared. Take 50g of dried leaves and shred them in 1 liter of water. Stand for 30 minutes. You can serve it with honey. We can extract magnesium from this.

The petals can be eaten in salads and tea. To prepare the tea, 40g of dried petals must be poured in 1 liter of boiling water. If you want to eat them raw in salads, wash them and make sure they are free of pesticides.

Allowing seeds to grow as with other grains, cut the sprout after seven days and eat them raw in salads. The seeds are rich in vitamins and minerals.

Sunflower Toxicity

No harmful effects have been found in pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Products which are obtained from sunflower plant

  • There are seeds of sunflowers. It sells its fruit for human consumption. There is more information in the listing.
  • There is oil in this picture. The oil is obtained by pressing seeds. It is estimated that 1 ton of seed will deliver around 50 % oil, but it is not known how much oil will be obtained from that amount of seeds.

The food industry mostly uses this oil to make mayonnaise, margarine, bread, pastry dough and fried food.

  • The meals are high in calories. It is the part of the seed that is derived from oil. This product contains a lot of fat, fibers and minerals. pellet is used for animal feed and is marketed under the name.
  • The neutralization feces come from the neutralization step of the free acidity of crude oil. They are either sold as they are or added to the pellets. They can also be used for other things.
  • The fat comes from neutralization feces. When the acid oil ‘s acidity is greater than 50 %, it ‘s called acid oil.
  • Deodorization products. It is recovered from deodorizers by means of steam. Chemicals appreciated in the pharmaceutical and food industries come from there.
  • The pericarp is the external part of the seed. It is supposed to be fuel boilers. Chickens are also used in beds. It is not suitable for human consumption.

Sunflowers cultivated varieties

There are nearly 70 species of annual and perennial plants that are native to America. They are classified according to their quality. Plants for the extract of oil are less branched and have a single large floral section. There are some varieties and subspecies.

  • Aanthus annuus L. The plant size is less than 1 There are flowers of 15 cm, with sulfur yellow, bronze or brownish red.
  • Aanthus annuus L. ‘Teddy Bear ‘ is less than 0. 9m with bright yellow flowers.
  • Aanthus annuus L. The size of the Russian Giant is greater than 3. 5 m is grown to market because of its big seeds.
  • Aanthus annuus L. The branched plant is called Holiday.
  • Aanthus annuus L. The petals are black and white.
  • Aanthus annuus L. 12 cm flowers, brown.
  • Aanthus annuus L. The ‘Terciopelo Queen ‘ has maroon flowers.
  • Aanthus annuus L. The sunspot is 60 cm in height and 25 cm in diameter.
  • Aanthus annuus L. There is a variety intended for oil extraction.
  • Aanthus annuus L. There is progress for oil.
  • Aanthus annuus L. ‘Rostov ‘ is for oil.
  • Aanthus annuus L. var : lenticularis Steyerm
  • Aanthus annuus L. var : macrocarpus Cockerell.

Other species of sunflowers

  • Aanthus annuus L. The Shinners are called texanus ( Heiser ) Shinners.
  • The leaves of Helianthus decapetalus are very fine.
  • The plant is known as the “ Maximilian sunflower ”.
  • The Triumph of Ghent is also known as the hilanthus x multiflorus.
  • Helianthus salicolius is a plant.
  • Its common name is Jerusalem artichoke. Its roots are tuberous and are suitable for human consumption.

helianthus tuberosus

Jerusalem artichoke is sold in the market Naschmarkt, Vienna.

punto rojo

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18 November, 2021.

Category: Flower

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