A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common sunflower seed and sprouts (Helianthus annuus L.)

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Helianthus annuus is also known as the sunflower. The crop of seed and sprout has many benefits. This review summarizes the importance of both seed and sprout in terms of their health and nutrition, as well as their potential benefits. Dynamic metabolite changes which occur during biological activities are evaluated. The aim is to provide scientific evidence for improving the applications of this popular crop as a functional food.

The introduction is about something.

The common flower is Helianthus annuus L. A variety of benefits can be found in the species of the Asteraceae family grown commercially. The 4th position at world level is occupied by the oilseed rape, which is used as a snack, salad, and in some bakery goods. The benefits of the sunflower seed and sprout are many. It is used to treat a number of disease conditions, including heart disease, bronchial infections, laryngeal and pulmonary infections, coughs and colds. The popularity of the sunflower and its parts worldwide has been the result of these notable benefits.

Important secondary compounds with potentially important roles in ecology, as well as the physiology, biosynthesis, and biodegradation of organisms, are produced by sunflowers. This review underscores the importance of increased research regarding the sunflower sprout, in particular, by summing the chemical constituents, dynamic changes, metabolite biological impact, and overall nutritional value of this common plant.

The nutrition value of the seed.

The common sunflower seed, grown and consumed worldwide, contains a number of vitamins and minerals. It can be used as a cooking oil, enjoyed as a roasted or salted snack, dehulled and included as a confectionary nut, and it is widely used as both livestock and pet feed.

The sulfur and nitrogen needed for seedling development is provided by the seed storage proteins in the sunflowers. The sulfur-rich proteins are ideal for many human needs. There are two main types of storage in the sunflower seed, 11S globulins and napin-type 2S albumins, both of which are water-soluble. Various albumins have been reported to have fungicidal properties. The sunflower seed is a good source of glutamine/glutamic acid, asparagine/aspartic acid, arginine, and cysteine, and is low in anti-nutritional properties. Aspartic acid and arginine have a content of 26. There are 75g and 100g of protein in the meal. In addition, essential acids. The amounts of phenylalanine, leucine, methionine, and cysteine are 8. 47g/100g. When combined with wheat-based breads, sesame seeds increase the quantity and quality of bread.

The seeds are rich in oil but poor in oleic acid. [ 13 ] Research shows that sunflower oil can reduce both total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Oleic acid lowers triacylglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, increases high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol, and lowers the risk of heart attack. Oleic acid has a stronger relation with breast cancer. Studies of southern European populations show that intake of oleic acid sources appears to be protective. They are Menendez et al. Oleic acid could be used to suppress the Her-2/neu expression which is involved in the development of breast cancer. Oleic acid increases the oil ‘s stability to oxidation at high temperatures. High Oleic oil is used in the canned food industry and as an Additive Lubricant for cars and textile industry equipment. One advantage of this high Oleic acid sunflower oil is its higher degree of oxidative stability, which is desirable for frying purposes, refining and storage compared to oils low in Oleic acid.

Sunflower seed is a rich source of Omega 3 ‘s. safflower seed is 0 compared to other oilseeds. 2 %, sesame. 5 %, oats ( 22 ). Cottonseed is 4 %. 1 %, peanut. 1 % ) and soy. There are 5 % and 20 % respectively. Linoleic acid has 2 cis double bonds. There is an inverse association between the risk of coronary heart disease and the intake of Omega 6. The most active isomers of linoleic acid are cis-9, trans-11-CLA, and cis-12-CLA. biotechnological methods could be used to produce active isomers. In order to make CLA. Use sunflower oil and castor oil as cost-effective substrates and convert them to free fatty acids by using a lipase made from Lactobacillus plantarum. This method allows us to produce the highest concentration of isomers with a mixture of two isomers. Trans-10 and cis-12-CLA are included. The oil is from 8 grams of sunflower oil. A diet rich in Omega 3s is recommended from the aspect of nutrition. It has been acknowledged that the high content of oleic acid in the oil has a positive effect on the body.

The sunflower seed has higher levels of both high oleic acid and linoleic acid. linseed, sesame seed, and soy all contain less than 3mg/100g. There is 1mg/100g. In normal metabolism, vitamins E and K play a role in preventing or controlling nonspecific reactions.

The chemical composition.

They are a good source of vitamins and minerals. The past few decades have seen the use of flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, and caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of flavonoids and phenolic acids are summarized. The most common structural types in the family are fronones and fronols. The most common substitution patterns are 5,7,4′-trioxygenation and 5,7,3′-tetraoxygenation. The most common types of flavonols are kaempferol and quercetion.

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There are Flavonoids.

A wide range of biological benefits, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-Inflammatory, anti-allergic, antithrombotic and vasodilatory, can be found in floroids. The structural characteristics of the different classes of flavonoids can be found around the oxygen ring. The table shows the important metabolites found in the sunflower family. The main component in Japanese diet is isoflavone intake. Aral et al. A high consumption of isoflavones by Japanese women may contribute to their low incidence of coronary heart disease compared with women in other countries. Isoflavone has been reported to have health benefits such as antioxidation. The isoflavone content in the sunflower seed increased from 534ng/g to 613ng/g. 7 and 715 were soaked in water. According to 9 ( soak in chitosan ) ng/g after sprouting, it is possible to find a better functional food source than the raw sunflower seeds. The total flavonoids content in the extracts is compared to the standard curve for Quercetin solutions and is expressed as the amount of Quercetin equivalents per g dry matter of seeds and sprout. The results of Kim et al show an increase in the total flavonoid contents in the seeds. 40 The authors found that the increase in flavonoid levels was caused by the germination of the mung bean.

FlavonoidsSkeleton3573′4′Refs
Kaempferol [1-4] OH OH OH H OH [35]
Apigenin [1-3] H OH OH H OH [35]
Dihydroflavonol [1-7] OH H H H H [35]
Genistein [1-6] OH OH H OH [35]
Genistin [1-5] OH Oglc H OH [35]
Daidzein [1-5] H OH H OH [35]
Daidzin [1-5] H Oglc H OH [35]
Biochanin A [1-5] OH OH H OCH3 [35]
Formononetin [1-5] H OH H OCH3 [35]
Luteolin [1-3] H OH OH OH OH [35]
Quercetin [1-4] OH OH OH OH OH [35]
Phenolic acids R1 R2 R3 R4 [33]
 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA) [1-8, 1-10] H C H H [33]
 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) [1-8, 1-10] H H H C [33]
 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA) [1-8, 1-10] H H C H [33]
 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid [1-8, 1-9] H H H pCo [33]
 5-O-feruloylquinic acid [1-8, 1-11] H H H F [33]
 3,4-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA) [1-8, 1-10] H C C H [33]
 3,5-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) [1-8, 1-10] H C H C [33]
 4,5-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA) [1-8, 1-10] H H C C [33]

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There are phenolic acids.

There are different forms of phenolic acids in plants. The contents of the phenolic compounds identified in the sunflower seed are presented in the table. The report states that 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid is the main compound in non-oilseed and oilseed of sunflower, followed by diCQAs. The isomers 3- and 4-CQA represent 62. Up to 92. All samples have 9 % of the total phenolic content. The total phenolic content of the non-oilseed sunflowers is in a range. Oilseed kernels have concentrations ranging from 3938 to 0mg/100g DM. 8 to 4175. There is 9mg/100g DM. Fisk et al. It is found that the total phenolic content is around 3000mg/100gDM. Recent research shows that the total, soluble, and bound phenolic contents in both seeds and sprouts can be influenced by germination. The research conducted by Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos shows a decrease in the contents of the sunflower seed. The differences might be due to variety, growing and storage conditions, and/or extraction procedures. There are many studies that show the highAntioxidant potential of sunflower seed. When processed into an oil, caffeic, chlorogenic, caffeoylyquinic, sinapic, ferulic, gallic, coumaric, and Protocatechuic acids remain. Eliminating digestibility, causing undesirable browning and structural modifications, and altering the functional properties and behavior of various food matrixes are some of the things that might be caused by phenolic compounds.

Compounds nameContents (mg/100 g of DM)[M−H]− (m/z)Fragment ions (m/z)Non-oilseedOilseed
Ferulic acid 7.6 ± 3.6 12.4 ± 2.0 193 193, 134
Caffeic acid 20.5 ± 1.6 26.7 ± 1.1 179 179, 135
Non-esterified phenolic acids 28.1 ± 4.0 39.0 ± 2.3
3-O-caffeoylquinic acid 480 ± 21.6 439.9 ± 8.6 353 191, 179, 192,180, 135,134
4-O-caffeoylquinic acid 58.2 ± 0.8 87.5 ± 4.1 353 191, 179, 173, 135
5-O-caffeoylquinic acid 2795.7 ± 167.4 2467.0 ± 13.9 353 191, 179, 135
5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid 11.3 ± 2.4 113 ± 1.0 337 191, 163
5-O-feruloyquinic acid 16.5 ± 1.5 113 ± 1.0 367 191, 173, 111, 193, 274, 336
Coumaric and ferulic acid derivative 27.9 ± 2.8 22.6 ± 1.4
Dicaffeoylquinic acid 196.2 ± 7.0 360.9 ± 1.1 515 353, 335,191, 179, 173,135
Caffeoylquinic acid 24.7 ± 3.3 365 ± 22 353 191
Monocaffeoylquinic acids 3358.8 ± 168.8 3030.9 ± 17.0
3,4-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid 14.9 ± 5.8 28.8 ± 0.3 515 353, 173, 179, 498, 191, 354, 335, 203, 299
3,5-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid 135.0 ± 3.0 211.2 ± 1.1 515 353, 191, 179, 135, 173
4,5-Di-o-caffeoylquinic acid 46.3 ± 2.7 120.9 ± 0.2 515 353, 173, 203, 179, 299, 255, 191, 335, 317

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There is a substance called Tocopherols.

It is important that vitamins E and other tocopherols are present in the oil. Natural fat-soluble vitamins are viable both in the body and in the lab. There are four tocopherol derivatives. alpha-tocopherol is the highest tocopherol isomer in terms of its antioxidant power. The risk of cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer may be reduced by the use of vitamin E. Though essential for proper bodily function, Tocopherol can not be synthesised in the human body and therefore must be included in the diet.

Most of the alpha-tocopherols are found in cultivated sunflower seeds. Velasco et al. According to their research, the average tocopherol content is 669. Alpha-tocopherol is composed of 1mg/kg. 4 % and 5 are alpha-tocopherols. There are 6 and 2tocopherols. Nolascoa et al. Significant variations in the total tocopherol concentration within sunflower seed oil are reported. According to Fisk et al. The tocopherol values range from a low of 214 to a high of 362. The study was more focused. The alpha tocopherol content in the oil is 475mg/100g.

There are high concentrations of vitamins A, B, and C in the seeds and sprout. They are rich in a number of vitamins and minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and zinc. The magnesium and zinc in the sprout is much higher than the seed. Luka et al. The report said that sunflower seed extract showed hypoglycaemic potential. Steroids, steroids, steroids, steroids, steroids, steroids, steroids, steroids, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponins, saponin

There are changes in the metabolites during sunflower seed sprouting.

There is an increase of free amino acids and organic acids during the sprouting process. During germination, anti-nutritional and indigestible components decrease. The seeds accumulate some secondary metabolites, such as vitamins E and polyphenols.

The -amylase is responsible for converting starch into sugars. There is an increase in free amino acids and simple sugars. Erbas et al. Study two varieties of the same seed and find that there is a decrease in the amount ofProtein. 1 and 40. 9 % to 35. They were 5 and 28. The free amino acid content increased by 4 %. 59 and 0. It was 28 % to 5. 7 to 5. During the seed. The total sugar contents have increased from 7 to 7. 3 to 28 6mg/g and 1 There are 4mg/g. The most dramatic changes in oil content occur between the 72 and 96h mark. The free fatiguing acid content peaks at 72h. It is possible that this is due to an increase in oil hydrolysis, free fatty acid conversion to sucrose, and mobilization to the growing embryo axis. The composition of the triglycerides can change due to their hydrolysis to free fatty acids and can be considered as a pre-digestion.

Changes in the composition of the phenolics may be caused by the activated and complex biochemical metabolisms. Several important signaling pathways are involved in the synthesis and transformation of phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content increases after 5 days of growth, with the primary compounds being gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, and sinapic acid. The quantities of the anti-nutritive components which affect the digestion are reduced after germination.

There are biological activities.

The sunflower seed is a great source of many vitamins and minerals. There are various properties of this functional H. Annuus L. Below are some things that are discussed.

Biological activitiesBiological compounds
Antioxidant effects tocopherols,

l

-ascorbic acid, antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione dehydrogenase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, carotenoids

Antimicrobial activity tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds
Antidiabetic effects chlorogenic acid, glycosides, phytosterols, caffeic acid, quinic acid
Antihypertensive effects 11S globulin peptides
Anti-inflammatory activity α-tocopherol, triterpene glycosides, helianthosides
Wounds healing linoleic acid, arachidonic acid

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Antioxidant effects.

Antioxidants have been shown to have protective functions against cellular damage and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Natural antioxidants include the following : catalase, Glutathione dehydrogenase, and guaiacol peroxidase.

There are many factors that influence the activity of the sunflowers. Antioxidant defenses may be affected by UV-B radiation. The catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activities increase to 32. 0nmol/g 36pmol/mg, 4 They were 6, and 18. The cotyledons were exposed to 15kJ/m2 UV-B. Superoxide dismutase ( SOD ), guaiacol peroxidase ( POD ) and catalase ( CAT ) activity were shown to be higher in Sunflower seeds exposed to saline. Glutathione reductase ( GR ) and CAT activity is higher in the root compared to the leaf under the same conditions.

The ferric reducing/antioxidant power of the striped sunflower seed cotyledon extracts has also been evaluated. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity is 45. 27mol ; 50 There are 5 Trolox equivalents. Increased melatonin and total isoflavone contents are likely to be the reason for the increased radical scavenging activity during the sprouting phase. The total phenolic content of the seed goes up. 6 to 3. There is Melatonin in the sprout. It is not detected in the seed. The isoflavone content increased from 534 to 613. 7ng/g after a few days. Isoflavone has a number of health benefits, one of which is it ‘s ability to oxidize low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) oxidation. When compared to the seeds, the values ofAntioxidant activity increases almost 12-fold for mung bean, twice for radish, and one-fifth of broccoli sprout, when compared to the seeds.

The activity is antimicrobial.

The nsLTPs are part of a large family of plant proteins. There is strong antimicrobial activity against a model fungus. According to a report, LTP from onion is highly active against a wide range of fungi. Ha-AP10 is a 10kDa basic polypeptide that indicates effective antimicrobial activity against a model fungus. As with other seeds, Ha-AP10 displayed high antifungal activity. During the first 5 days of sunflowers, there is aUbiquitin present. The majority of this is in the cotyledons. The report shows that Ha-AP10 has a weak effect on the growth of Alternaria alternata fungus. The role of Ha-AP10 should be further investigated.

There are some secondary leaf and root metabolites that are found in sexually transmitted infections. There are different antimicrobial mechanisms. Tannins form irreversible complexes with proline-rich protein, which leads to the inhibition of the synthesis of cell lysates. The inhibition zone formed around the disc is used to determine the degree of anti-bacterial and antifungal activity. The antibacterial and antifungal activity may be due to the inactivatement of the cell envelope transport genes. The extract from H is suggested by the findings. Annuus seed has antimycobacterial activity that is similar to a previous work by Cantrell et al. Who report that I ? Helenium is a member of the sunflower family and has an activity against M. The radiorespirometric BACTEC test shows that the H37Rv exceeds 80 % inhibition.

The effects of diabetes.

A significant contributor to diabetes is the formation andAccumulation of advanced glycation end products under hyperglycemic conditions. The anti-AGE activities of natural foods are being explored. The sunflower sprout can be used against AGEs. The AGE inhibitory rate is 0mg/mL. Annuus L. 29 % It is more effective to treat and prevent diabetes by eliminating the reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) which induce various biochemical pathways associated with the disease. The sunflower sprout has the most potent -carotene oxidization inhibition compared to the seed. cynarin has cholesterol/triglyceride-lowering effects and could potentially benefit patients with hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia. The cynarin content in the sunflower sprout is much higher than that in the artichoke leaves. It is possible to treat hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic conditions with other phytochemicals.

The antidiabetic benefits of sunflower seed extract are studied in rats. There is an extract that reduces the levels of blood sugar in normal rats. 78 and 24. It was 83 % and 22. They are on March 3 and 27. 34 % in rats with diabetes. Luka et al. According to the report, sunflower seed extract lowers cholesterol levels. There is a decrease in blood sugar with the use of Sunflower seed extract. Compared to glibenclamide, streptozotocin-nicotinamide has been shown to improve body weight, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels in diabetic rats. The alpha-glycosidase inhibitors in the secondary metabolites in sunflower seed extract reduce the absorption and digestion of sugars from the gut.

Antihypertensive effects.

In recent years, bioactive peptides have been recognized as having biological advantages for digestion. Antihypertensive advantages can be achieved by blocking the angio-tensin-I converting enzyme.

The hydrolysate is obtained through the use of pepsin and pancreatin. The levels of ACE effectiveness are different at different times. At the beginning of pepsin hydrolysis, there is a significant increase in the generation of ACE inhibitory peptides. In the beginning of hydrolysis, pancreatin hydrolysate leads to maximum ACE inhibition. The Peptide is then analysed. The sunflower seed 11S globulin is a helianthinin fragment and it shows a helianthinin fragment correspondence.

The activity is anti- inflammatory.

The anti- inflammatory and gastrointestinal profiles of indomethacin are evaluated in rats. The results show that sunflower oil has anti- inflammatory benefits. 5 % less compared to indomethacin. The administration of Indomethacin causes significant damage to the stomach in rats. The administration of indomethacin together with sunflower oil does not cause significant damage to the stomach in rats. When combined with sunflower oil, it is possible to prevent gastric damage. Other vegetable oils, such as olive oil, have anti- inflammatory effects. The presence of saponin reduces inflammation.

The wounds are healing.

Young male lambs can benefit from using a high concentration of linoleic acid as a therapeutic alternative for their wound healing process. After 3 days of the sunflower seed oil treatment, the wound areas are reduced by 300 %. Baie and Sheikh reported the efficiency of essential fatty acids in wound healing. Linoleic and arachidonic acids are important in the maintenance of a cutaneous barrier to water loss and as a precursor of prostaglandins. They are Van Dorp and Prottey. It was observed that a high linoleic acid content in the oil could reverse and cure both sclerotic and dermatosis. Darmstadt et al. Treatments with sunflower seed oil result in a significant improvement in skin condition and a reduction in the incidence of nosocomial infections when applied 3 times daily to preterm infants.

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